how are ethereum private keys generated

Most people are familiar with public keys and the corresponding public blockchain addresses. These are cryptographic identifiers, unique to every account holder on the network, which can be used to prove ownership of a certain amount of digital coins or tokens. However, there is another type of cryptographic key, known as a private key, which is used to secure and send messages to other users on the ethereum network. While it is possible to export one’s public key and use it with another blockchain or cryptocurrency, one must remember to generate a new private key if they change hardware or locations. Because the private key is unique to each user, it cannot be used to send funds to or receive them from another address; all transactions and message access take place through the use of the public key.

Private keys are an essential component of blockchain technology, and as the amount of value stored on the ethereum network grows, the importance of these keys will increase. In this article, we will discuss the various methods by which private keys can be generated and used.

The Private Key Creation Process

When creating a new ethereum account, the user will be asked to input a password. This password must be kept secure and private as it will be used to generate the corresponding private key. Once the user selects the desired currency and confirms their registration, they will be provided with a unique wallet address for receiving their coins. This address is constructed with an alphanumeric string of at least eight characters, and is used as the counterpart to the public key. An example would be:


Since the private key is a 16-digit number, it must be stored and protected in a safe and secure manner. Once generated, the private key can be safely used to access and use the Ethereum network, but it must never be shared with another user or used to send funds to or receive funds from others. One should also avoid storing private keys on devices that are connected to the internet as this could lead to security breaches and theft. If one loses their private key, they will not be able to access their accounts on the ethereum network, and any coins or tokens that are stored there will be inaccessible. Storing private keys on hard drives and other types of storage media is also heavily discouraged because this makes the keys much more accessible to anyone who may gain access to the devices. If one stores their private key on a piece of paper or a similar storage medium, they can ensure that it is always kept secure and safe from harm.

Where Do Private Keys Come From?

Though there are many methods for generating private keys, they all come from the same source — one’s password. The better the password the longer the key and vice versa. It is important to note that the same rule applies to DNA passwords as well. For instance, if a user chooses a password that is derived from their surname, then it will create a key that is only as long as the number of characters within their given name. Let’s take a look at some of the most common methods for generating private keys and their associated strengths and weaknesses:

Password Based

The most basic and, arguably, the oldest method for generating a private key is through the use of a password. Similar to a bank password, a password is used to protect a user’s private key from being accessed by anyone who does not possess the corresponding open-source library necessary to generate the private key. If one chooses a strong password, then it is very unlikely that anyone else will be able to compute the private key without knowing the password. This is one of the major advantages of using passwords to protect your private keys. However, passwords are not perfect and, as previously stated, can be easily accessed by anyone who finds them. Even worse, many passwords are simple and easy to guess, which means they can be used by an attacker to access one’s account. The best way to avoid falling prey to a dictionary attack is to use a passphrase.

Passphrase Based

A passphrase is a phrase used to generate a key that is longer than a 8-character alphanumeric string. For instance, if one chooses a phrase such as “Lorem Ipsum”, then the corresponding private key will be 64 characters long. It is a very strong and complex password consisting of three distinct words separated by periods. Passphrases are quite a bit stronger and more secure than simple passwords, because they are not susceptible to dictionary attacks. However, passphrases are also quite difficult to memorize, which makes them less desirable. Fortunately, the ethereum community provides open-source libraries that can generate long and complex passphrases that can be stored safely on memory sticks.

Triple Descent Password Based

Triple descent passwords use three different words from the Roman language, along with a symbol, to generate a very strong eight-character alphanumeric string. When choosing a triple descent password, one must ensure that each word is at least six characters long and does not contain repetition or homophones. To generate a private key, one must input the words “Vulcan”, “Ferrari”, and “Aventurine”. After entering these words, one should press the “Spacebar” key, and the corresponding private key will be displayed on the screen. A more complex passphrase can be created by entering the first three letters of each word, along with the corresponding digraphs or combining marks. For instance, if one enters “Vulcan”, “Ferrari”, and “Aventurine”, then the corresponding private key will be:


Richemium Password Based

The richemium password method was developed by the company RICHAEMIUM and is used to generate long and complex passwords. The password is made up of various capitals, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters, and is designed to be extremely hard to guess. Similar to the triple descent method, the richemium method uses the Roman alphabet, along with special characters such as numbers and hyphens to create a string of eight characters. However, the richemium method is much more complex and can generate longer and more complex strings than the triple descent method.

Diceware Password Based

Diceware passwords are a special type of password used to generate a very strong and complex key. Developed by Miek Gieben, the diceware method first appeared in the late 1990s and was inspired by the way that human memories work. We are all susceptible to dictionary attacks and other types of intrusions, and devices such as laptop and desktop computers have large memory banks that can be used to store and easily access passwords and other sensitive information. Unlike simple passwords, diceware passwords are stored in an array known as a dictionary, which are then used to access data. In order to generate a diceware password, one must first choose a strong personal identification number (PIN) or password. Once this has been done, the user will be asked to enter this PIN or password into a diceware generator.

The diceware method was designed to be nearly impossible to be guessed by using both random and repetitious numbers, as well as a wide array of uppercase and lowercase letters. As with most of the other methods discussed so far, the diceware password can also be used to generate a private key, which in this case will be 12 characters long.

Protecting Your Private Keys

Once you have created a private key, how do you ensure that this key is safe and cannot be accessed by anyone else? The answer is simple — store it in a safe and secure location. Ideally, this location should be inaccessible to anyone other than the owner of the device, and the key should be stored on media such as paper. Though it is possible to generate multiple private keys and store them on different devices, this is not a good idea, as it makes the keys more vulnerable to theft and/or damage. If you do decide to make a separate key for each of your devices, then you should ensure that these keys are stored in a safe and secure manner. Remember, one key stores all the relevant private information for accessing your accounts on the Ethereum network. Losing a private key means that you will have to recreate it, which is a tedious and time-consuming process.

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